1) Afghanistan is geographically located in Central Asia.
2) It borders Pakistan in the south and the east, with Iran in the west, with Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north, and with the People’s Republic of China to the northeast through the Wakhan Corridor.
3) In recent years several wars and conflicts have happened in this country: in 1978 the Saur Revolution took place, in 1989 the Soviets withdrew, although the civil war continued and in 1996 the Taliban imposed a regime based on Sharia.
4) In 2001 the United States overthrew the Taliban government supported by an international coalition, in reaction to the attacks of September 11, 2001. Afghanistan’s previous political structure was replaced by a more pro-Western and democratically elected government.
5) The culture of Afghanistan has been greatly influenced by Islam, but also to a lesser extent by Buddhism and Zoroastrianism.
6) The country has been a crossroads throughout history for India, Iran and Central Asia, which has impacted on its civilization.
7) Most Afghans (about 99 percent) are Muslims, of whom 80% are Sunni, and only 19% are Shi’a. There is a small minority of Sikhs in the nation.
8) A prominent figure of Muslim life in Afghanistan is the mullah (religious leader or instructor). Any man who can recite the Quran by heart can be a mullah.
9) The Afghans are proud of their country, their lineage, and sovereignty.
10) The Afghan literature is composed mainly poems in Persian language and Pashto.
11) Its music is composed of traditional string instruments such as the endowed lute or the tanbur lute, by Arab and Persian influences and the drum table, Indian influence.